Took photographs that Morrissey would use as backdrops and a single cover.
See also: Rocky Graziano
Stanley Kubrick (; July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, producer, screenwriter and photographer. Widely considered one of the greatest filmmakers of all time, his films—nearly all of which are adaptations of novels or short stories—span a number of genres and are known for their intense attention to detail, innovative cinematography, extensive set design and dark humor. Kubrick was raised in the Bronx, New York City, and attended William Howard Taft High School from 1941 to 1945. He was an average student but displayed a keen interest in literature, photography, and film from a young age, and began to teach himself all aspects of film production and directing after graduating from high school. After working as a photographer for Look magazine in the late 1940s and early 1950s he began making short films on shoestring budgets, and made his first major Hollywood film, The Killing, for United Artists in 1956. This was followed by two collaborations with Kirk Douglas: the anti-war film Paths of Glory (1957) and the historical epic Spartacus (1960). Creative differences arising from his work with Douglas and the film studios, a dislike for the film industry in Hollywood, and a growing concern about crime in America prompted Kubrick to move to the United Kingdom in 1961, which he seldom left for the rest of his life. His home at Childwickbury Manor in Hertfordshire, which he shared with his wife Christiane, became his workplace, where he centralized the writing, research, editing, and management of his productions. This permitted him almost complete artistic control over his films, with the rare advantage of financial support from major Hollywood studios. His first productions in Britain were two films with Peter Sellers: Lolita (1962), an adaptation of the novel by Vladimir Nabokov, and the Cold War black comedy Dr. Strangelove (1964). A perfectionist, Kubrick assumed direct control over most aspects of his filmmaking, cultivating an expertise in writing, editing, color-timing, promotion and exhibition. He was famous for the painstaking care taken in researching his films and staging scenes, performed in close coordination with his actors, crew, and other collaborators. He frequently asked for several dozen retakes of the same shot in a movie, something that often confused and frustrated his performers. Despite the notoriety this provoked among actors, many of Kubrick's films broke new cinematic ground are now considered landmarks. The scientific realism and innovative special effects in his science fiction epic 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) had no precedent in the history of cinema, and the film earned him his only personal Oscar, for Best Visual Effects. Steven Spielberg has referred to the film as his generation's "big bang" and it is regarded as one of the greatest films ever made. While many of Kubrick's films were controversial and initially received mixed reviews upon release—particularly the brutal A Clockwork Orange (1971), which Kubrick pulled from circulation in the UK following a mass media frenzy—most were nominated for Oscars, Golden Globes, or BAFTA Awards, and underwent critical reevaluations. For the 18th-century period film Barry Lyndon (1975), Kubrick obtained lenses developed by Zeiss for NASA to film scenes by candlelight. With the horror film The Shining (1980), he became one of the first directors to make use of a Steadicam for stabilized and fluid tracking shots, a technology vital to his Vietnam War film Full Metal Jacket (1987). His last film, the erotic drama Eyes Wide Shut, was completed shortly before his death in 1999 at the age of 70.