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{{Infobox musical artist
 
| name            = Morrissey
 
| image          = Morrissey-Alexander-Film-.jpg
 
| imgsize        = 100px
 
| caption        = Morrissey, 2004
 
| background      = solo_singer
 
| birth_name      = Steven Patrick Morrissey
 
| birth_date      = {{Birth date and age|df=yes|1959|05|22}}
 
| birth_place    = {{nowrap|[[Davyhulme]], Lancashire, England}}
 
| genre          = [[Alternative rock]], [[indie rock]], [[indie pop]]
 
| occupation      = Singer-songwriter, lyricist, musician
 
| instrument      = Vocals
 
| years_active    = 1977–present
 
| label          = [[HMV Records|HMV]], [[Parlophone Records|Parlophone]], [[Sire Records|Sire]], [[RCA Records|RCA]], [[Reprise Records|Reprise]], [[Mercury Records|Mercury]], [[Attack Records (UK)|Attack]], [[Sanctuary Records|Sanctuary]], [[Decca Records|Decca]], [[Lost Highway Records|Lost Highway]], Major Minor
 
| associated_acts = [[The Smiths]], [[Ed Banger and the Nosebleeds|The Nosebleeds]], [[Slaughter & The Dogs]], [[Nancy Sinatra]]
 
| website        = {{URL|http://www.itsmorrisseysworld.com/}}
 
}}
 
'''Steven Patrick Morrissey''' (born 22 May 1959), known as '''Morrissey''', is an English singer and lyricist. He rose to prominence in the 1980s as the lyricist and vocalist of the band [[The Smiths]]. The band was highly successful in the United Kingdom but broke up in 1987, and Morrissey began a solo career, making the top ten of the [[UK Singles Chart]] on ten occasions. Widely regarded as an important innovator in [[independent music|indie music]],<ref name="anderman">{{cite web |last=Anderman |first= Joan |url=http://www.boston.com/news/globe/living/articles/2004/10/03/this_charming_man/ |title=This charming man |work=The Boston Globe |date=3 October 2004 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref> Morrissey has been described by music magazine ''[[NME]]'' as "one of the most influential artists ever," and ''The Independent'' has stated "most pop stars have to be dead before they reach the iconic status he has reached in his lifetime."<ref>{{cite web |last=Sturges |first=Fiona |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/these-charming-men-making-it-as-morrissey-780877.html |title=This Charming Man: Making It As Morrissey |work=The Independent  |date=18 February 2007 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref> ''[[Pitchfork Media]]'' has called him "one of the most singular figures in Western popular culture from the last twenty years."<ref>{{cite web |last=DiCrescenzo |first=Brent |url=http://pitchfork.com/reviews/albums/5437-you-are-the-quarry/ |title=You Are the Quarry album review |work=Pitchfork Media |date=19 May 2004 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey's lyrics have been described as "dramatic, bleak, funny [[Vignette (literature)|vignettes]] about doomed relationships, lonely nightclubs, the burden of the past and the prison of the home."<ref name="gatti">{{cite web|author=Gatti, Tom |url=http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/stage/theatre/article1080659.ece |title=Morrissey: the musical |work=The Times  |date=25 June 2005 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref> He is also noted for his unique [[baritone]] vocal style (though he sometimes uses [[falsetto]]),<ref name="greatestsingers">{{cite web |url=http://www.rollingstone.com/news/coverstory/24161972/page/92 |title=The 100 Greatest Singers of All Time—92: Morrissey |work=Rolling Stone |accessdate=23 August 2009.}}</ref> his [[quiff]] haircut and his dynamic live performances. His forthright, often [[contrarian]] opinions, especially on the subject of race, have led to a number of media controversies, and he has also attracted media attention for his advocacy of vegetarianism and [[animal rights]].
 
 
==Biography==
 
===Early life: 1959–76===
 
Morrissey was born on 22 May 1959 at Park Hospital in [[Davyhulme]], Lancashire to [[Irish_people|Irish]] Catholic parents who had emigrated to [[Manchester]] from [[County Kildare]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/from-morrissey-to-tony-blair-how-irelands-children-are-at-the-heart-of-english-culture-445584.html |title=From Morrissey to Tony Blair: How Ireland's children are at the heart of English culture – Features, Music |work=The Independent  |location=UK |date=21 April 2007 |accessdate=23 October 2011}}</ref> with his only sibling, elder sister Jackie, a year prior to his birth. His father, Peter, was a hospital porter and his mother, Elizabeth (née Dwyer), was an assistant librarian. Morrissey was raised in inner-city [[Manchester]]. His family first lived at Harper Street in Hulme before moving to nearby Queen's Square in 1965. In 1969, when many of the old streets and tenements were facing demolition, Morrissey's parents moved to a three-bedroomed house on King's Road in the suburb of [[Stretford]].
 
 
As a child, Morrissey developed interests and role models that distinguished him from his peers, including female singers and pop stars like [[Dusty Springfield]], [[Sandie Shaw]], [[Marianne Faithfull]], as well as [[Billy Fury]]. He was interested in [[Kitchen sink realism|"kitchen sink"]] television drama, ''[[Coronation Street|Coronation Street's]]'' [[Elsie Tanner]], actor [[James Dean]] and authors [[Oscar Wilde]] and [[Shelagh Delaney]]. The [[Moors Murders]] horrified the city when the matter came to light in 1965, and this [[collective trauma]] is said to have made a profound and lasting impression on Morrissey.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}}
 
 
Morrissey has said his athletic ability saved him to a large degree from bullying during adolescence. Still, he has described this period as a time when he was often lonely and depressed. As a teenager, he began taking prescription drugs to help combat the depression that would later follow him throughout his life.<ref>{{cite web| author=Simpson, Dave | year= 1998 | title=Manchester's Answer To The H-Bomb | work="Uncut" magazine | url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/articles/uncut0898b.htm | accessdate=11 November 2006}}</ref> He attended St. Mary's [[Secondary Modern School]] and Stretford [[Secondary Technical School|Technical School]], where he passed three [[GCE Ordinary Level|O levels]], including English Literature. He then worked briefly for the [[Inland Revenue]], but ultimately decided to "go on [[Jobseeker's Allowance|the dole]]."{{Citation needed|date=August 2010}}
 
 
Of his youth, Morrissey said, "Pop music was all I ever had, and it was completely entwined with the image of the pop star. I remember feeling the person singing was actually with me and understood me and my predicament."<ref name="NYT Holden">{{cite web |author=Holden, Stephen  |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D7133CF934A25754C0A967958260&scp=13&sq=Morrissey+smiths&st=nyt |title=The Pop Life: Out of the Mainstream |work=The New York Times |date=17 July 1991 |accessdate=18 November 2008}}</ref> From 1974, he frequently wrote letters to music magazines like ''[[Melody Maker]]'' and the ''[[NME]]'',<ref>{{cite web|author=Published 21 May 2005 |url=http://nymag.com/nymetro/arts/music/10156/ |title=4 of the letters |publisher=Nymag.com |date=21 May 2005 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> giving his opinions on various bands. Morrissey would sometimes go to see bands in Manchester, the first being [[T. Rex (band)|T. Rex]] at [[Belle Vue, Greater Manchester|Belle Vue]] in 1972.<ref>[http://www.indexmagazine.com/interviews/morrissey.shtml "Morrissey, 2004"]. Goldsworthy, Tim and Murphy, James. ''Index''. Marmalade-skies.co.uk. 2004. Retrieved 12 June 2011.</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.marmalade-skies.co.uk/jun1972.htm |title=T. Rex date |publisher=Marmalade-skies.co.uk |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> He was taken there by his father, fearing for his safety in the notoriously rough district. Morrissey has described the occasion as "messianic and complete chaos".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20050424/ai_n14599038/pg_4 |title=purple satin jacket |publisher=Findarticles.com |date= 24 April 2005|accessdate=13 August 2010 | first=Barry | last=Didcock}}</ref>
 
 
===Early bands and published books: 1977–81===
 
During the 1970s, although some people say that the teenage Morrissey was president of the UK branch of the [[New York Dolls]] fan club in fact he denied that he has even been a part of the fan club (said by him in the Jools Holland show). He articulated his love for the group in the documentary ''[[New York Doll]]'': "Some bands grab you and they never let you go and, no matter what they do, they can never let you down&nbsp;... the Dolls were that for me."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.popmatters.com/film/reviews/n/new-york-doll-dvd.shtml |title=New York Doll (2006): Arthur Kane, David Johansen, Barbara Kane, Morrissey—PopMatters Film Review |publisher=Popmatters.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
Morrissey was an early convert to [[punk rock]]. Morrissey, then still with forename, briefly fronted [[The Nosebleeds]] in 1978, who by that time included [[Billy Duffy]] (later of [[The Cult]]) on guitar. They played a number of concerts, including one supporting [[Magazine (band)|Magazine]], which was reviewed in the ''[[NME]]'' by [[Paul Morley]]. Morrissey also founded [[The Cramps]] fan club "The Legion of the Cramped" with another enthusiast for their music, Lindsay Hutton, but he progressively scaled down his involvement in the club over time because of the increasing amount of time he was devoting to his own musical career.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.carrollsweb.com/rockndog/lotc.htm |title=LOTC—Legion Of The Cramped |publisher=Carrollsweb.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey wrote several songs with Duffy, such as "Peppermint Heaven," "I Get Nervous" and "(I Think) I'm Ready for the Electric Chair," but none were recorded during the band's short lifespan, which ended the same year.<ref name="rogan">{{Cite book|last= Rogan |first= Johnny | title= Morrissey &amp; Marr: The Severed Alliance |publisher=Omnibus Press |year= 1993 |isbn=0-7119-3000-7}}</ref> After The Nosebleeds' split, Morrissey followed Duffy to join [[Slaughter & the Dogs]], briefly replacing original singer Wayne Barrett. He recorded four songs with the band and they auditioned for a record deal in London. After the audition fell through, Slaughter & the Dogs became Studio Sweethearts, without Morrissey.<ref name="rogan" /><ref>''MOJO Classic Magazine,'' Volume 1 Issue 13, Page 22</ref>
 
 
The singer interrupted his music career at around this time, focusing instead on writing on popular culture. He published two works with Babylon Books: ''The New York Dolls'' (1981), about his favourite band; and ''James Dean is Not Dead'' (1983), about actor [[James Dean]]'s brief career. A third book, ''Exit Smiling,'' which was actually written first (in 1980) and which dealt with obscure [[B movie]] actors, was initially rejected and remained unpublished until 1998.
 
 
===The Smiths: 1982–87===
 
{{Main|The Smiths}}
 
In early 1982, Morrissey met the guitarist [[Johnny Marr]] and the two began a songwriting partnership: "We got on absolutely famously. We were very similar in drive."<ref name="DIDiscs">{{cite episode |title=Desert Island Discs with Morrissey |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/features/desert-island-discs/castaway/d8176a1c#b00p068y
 
|series=Desert Island Discs | serieslink=Desert Island Discs |network=[[BBC]] |station=[[BBC Radio 4|Radio 4]] |airdate=2009-11-29}}</ref>
 
After recording several demo tapes with future [[the Fall (band)|Fall]] drummer [[Simon Wolstencroft]], in autumn 1982 they recruited drummer [[Mike Joyce (musician)|Mike Joyce]]. They also added bass player [[Dale Hibbert]], who provided the group with demo recording facilities at the studio where he worked as a [[factotum]]. However, after two gigs, Marr's friend [[Andy Rourke]] replaced Hibbert on bass because neither Hibbert's bass playing nor his personality "meshed" with the rest of the group. Signing to [[independent record label]] [[Rough Trade Records]], they released their first single, "[[Hand in Glove]]", in May 1983. It was championed by DJ [[John Peel]], as were all their later singles, but it failed to chart. The follow-up singles "[[This Charming Man]]" and "[[What Difference Does It Make?]]" fared better when they reached numbers 25 and 12 respectively on the [[UK Singles Chart]].<ref name="guinness book">{{Cite book|last=Roberts|first=David (ed.)|title=[[Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums|British Hit Singles & Albums]]|publisher=[[HIT Entertainment]]|year=2006|edition=19th edition|pages=509–510|isbn=1-904994-10-5}}</ref> Aided by praise from the music press and a series of studio sessions for Peel and [[David Jensen]] at [[BBC Radio 1]], The Smiths began to acquire a dedicated fan base. In February 1984, they released their debut album, ''[[The Smiths (album)|The Smiths]],'' which reached number two on the [[UK Albums Chart]].<ref name="guinness book" />
 
 
In 1984, the band released two non-album singles: "[[Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now]]" (their first UK top-ten hit) and "[[William, It Was Really Nothing]]". The year ended with the compilation album ''[[Hatful of Hollow]].'' This collected singles, [[B-side]]s and the versions of songs that had been recorded throughout the previous year for the Peel and Jensen shows. Early in 1985 the band released their second album, ''[[Meat is Murder]]'', which was their only studio album to top the UK charts. The single-only release "[[Shakespeare's Sister (song)|Shakespeare's Sister]]" reached number 26 on the UK Singles Chart, though the only single taken from the album, "[[That Joke Isn't Funny Anymore]]", was less successful, barely making the top 50.<ref name="guinness book" />
 
 
During 1985, the band undertook lengthy tours of the UK and the US while recording the next studio record, ''[[The Queen is Dead]]''. The album was released in June 1986, shortly after the single "[[Bigmouth Strikes Again]]". The record reached number two in the UK charts.<ref name="guinness book" /> However, all was not well within the group. A legal dispute with Rough Trade had delayed the album by almost seven months (it had been completed in November 1985), and Marr was beginning to feel the stress of the band's exhausting touring and recording schedule.<ref name="mainstream">Kelly, Danny. "Exile on Mainstream." ''NME.'' 14 February 1987.</ref> Meanwhile, Rourke was fired in early 1986 for his use of heroin.<ref>{{cite web| author=Harris, John | title=The Smiths—Trouble At Mill/The Queen Is Dead and beyond: part 3 | work=Johnharris.me.uk | url=http://www.johnharris.me.uk/arch/interview/Smiths/Smiths_pt3.htm | accessdate =22 April 2007}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> Rourke was temporarily replaced on bass guitar by [[Craig Gannon]], but he was reinstated after only a fortnight. Gannon stayed in the band, switching to rhythm guitar. This five-piece recorded the singles "[[Panic (The Smiths song)|Panic]]" and "[[Ask (song)|Ask]]" (with [[Kirsty MacColl]] on backing vocals) which reached numbers 11 and 14 respectively on the UK Singles Chart,<ref name="guinness book" /> and toured the UK. After the tour ended in October 1986, Gannon left the band. The group had become frustrated with Rough Trade and sought a record deal with a major label, ultimately signing with [[EMI]], which drew criticism from the band's fanbase.<ref name="mainstream" />
 
 
In early 1987, the single "[[Shoplifters of the World Unite]]" was released and reached number 12 on the UK Singles Chart.<ref name="guinness book" /> It was followed by a second compilation, ''[[The World Won't Listen]],'' which reached number two in the charts<ref name="guinness book" />&nbsp;– and the single "[[Sheila Take a Bow]]," the band's second (and last during the band's lifetime) UK top-10 hit.<ref name="guinness book" /> Despite their continued success, personal differences within the band&nbsp;– including the increasingly strained relationship between Morrissey and Marr&nbsp;– saw them on the verge of splitting. In July 1987, Marr left the group and auditions to find a replacement proved fruitless.
 
 
By the time the group's fourth album ''[[Strangeways, Here We Come]]'' was released in September, the band had split up. The breakdown in the relationship has been primarily attributed to Morrissey's annoyance with Marr's work with other artists and to Marr's growing frustration with Morrissey's musical inflexibility. ''Strangeways'' peaked at number two in the UK, but was only a minor US hit,<ref name="guinness book" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/retrieve_chart_history.do?model.chartFormatGroupName=Albums&model.vnuArtistId=5703&model.vnuAlbumId=15763|title=Artist Chart History—The Smiths: Albums|work=Billboard|accessdate=13 August 2008}}</ref> though it was more successful there than the band's previous albums.
 
 
===Solo career: 1988–97===
 
In March 1988, a mere six months after the Smiths' final album, Morrissey released his first solo album, ''[[Viva Hate]].'' To create the album, Morrissey teamed up with former Smiths producer [[Stephen Street]], [[Vini Reilly]] of [[Durutti Column]] (and formerly of [[the Nosebleeds]]), and drummer [[Andrew Paresi]]. ''Viva Hate'' reached number one upon release,<ref name="guinness book solo">{{Cite book|last=Roberts|first=David (ed.)|title=British Hit Singles & Albums|publisher=HIT Entertainment|year=2006|edition=19th edition|pages=379–380|isbn=1-904994-10-5}}</ref> supported by the singles "[[Suedehead]]" and "[[Everyday Is Like Sunday]]". ''Viva Hate'' was certified Gold by the RIAA on 16 November 1993.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&title=Viva%20Hate&artist=Morrissey&sort=Artist&perPage=25|title=Search Results: Morrissey Viva Hate|publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of America]]|accessdate=8 November 2008}}</ref>{{listen|filename=Morrissey Everyday Is Like Sunday.ogg|title=Everyday Is Like Sunday |description="Everyday is Like Sunday" taken from Morrissey debut album ''[[Viva Hate]].''}}
 
 
Morrissey initially planned to release a follow-up album entitled ''[[Bona Drag]]'' after releasing a few holdover singles from the ''Viva Hate'' sessions. As such, he released "[[The Last of the Famous International Playboys]]," "[[Interesting Drug]]," and "[[Ouija Board, Ouija Board]]" over the course of 1989. The first two of these became top ten hits.<ref name="guinness book solo" /> However, by the end of 1989 it became apparent that he would not be able to put out an album of new material soon enough. Morrissey decided to scrap the idea of a full-length LP and release ''Bona Drag'' as a compilation of singles and B-sides instead. The album collected these early singles along with further non-album cuts such as "[[November Spawned a Monster]]," "[[Piccadilly Palare]]," "Disappointed" and the B-side "Hairdresser on Fire."
 
 
After a falling out with Stephen Street, Morrissey recruited the production aid of [[Clive Langer]] and songwriting services of Mark E. Nevin, of [[Fairground Attraction]], for the studio follow-up to ''Viva Hate,'' entitled ''[[Kill Uncle]].'' The album peaked at number eight on the UK charts.<ref name="guinness book solo" /> The two singles released in promotion of the album, "[[Our Frank]]" and "[[Sing Your Life]]," failed to break the Top 20 on the singles charts reaching number 26 and number 33 respectively.<ref name="guinness book solo" /> Morrissey released two non-album singles, "[[Pregnant for the Last Time]]" and "[[My Love Life]]." The band Morrissey assembled in 1991 for his ''[[Kill Uncle]]'' tour went on to record 1992's hit album ''[[Your Arsenal]].'' Composition duties were split between guitarists [[Boz Boorer]] and [[Alain Whyte]], who have been the core of Morrissey's band until the later stages of his comeback period. ''Your Arsenal'' was produced by former [[David Bowie]] guitarist [[Mick Ronson]], and earned a [[Grammy Award]] nomination for Best Alternative Album. The album peaked at number four on the UK charts, with two of its three singles, "[[We Hate It When Our Friends Become Successful]]" and "[[You're the One for Me, Fatty]]," both debuting in the Top 20 in the UK.<ref name="guinness book solo" />
 
 
By 1994, Morrissey had suffered the loss of three people close to him: Mick Ronson, Tim Broad (Morrissey's video director) and Nigel Thomas (Morrissey's manager during year 1992). Channelling his grief, Morrissey wrote and recorded his second number one album in the UK,<ref name="guinness book solo" /> ''[[Vauxhall and I]].'' Years after the release, Morrissey acknowledged that he felt at the time that it was going to be his last album, and that not only was it the best album he'd ever made but that he would never be able to top it in the future. One of the album's songs, "[[The More You Ignore Me, the Closer I Get]]," reached number eight in the UK and number 46 in the US.<ref name="guinness book solo" /><ref name="billboard_solo_singles">{{cite web|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/retrieve_chart_history.do?model.vnuArtistId=88719&model.vnuAlbumId=785355|title=Artist Chart History—Morrissey: Singles|work=[[Billboard magazine|Billboard]]|accessdate=18 November 2008}}</ref> That year, he also released a single "[[Interlude (Morrissey and Siouxsie song)|Interlude]]" in duet with [[Siouxsie Sioux]] of [[Siouxsie and the Banshees]]. Following the success of ''Vauxhall and I'' Morrissey began work on ''[[Southpaw Grammar]]'' in early 1995. When released in August, the album was a hit, reaching number four in the UK.<ref name="guinness book solo" /> However, both of its singles failed to chart in the Top 20. The nature of the album was different to past Morrissey releases. Musically, the inclusion of two tracks which surpass the ten minute mark, the near two and half minute drum solo courtesy of Spencer Cobrin which opens the track "The Operation" and the sampling of a [[Dmitri Shostakovich|Shostakovich]] symphony have led some to dub the album as "Morrissey's flirtation with prog-rock." Some critics were impressed by this apparent attempt at progression, while others dismissed the longer tracks as mere self-indulgence. With the exception of the single "[[Sunny (Morrissey song)|Sunny]]" in that December it would be another year before Morrissey released a new album or single.
 
 
In 1996, Joyce took Morrissey and Marr to court, claiming that he had not received his fair share of recording and performance royalties. Morrissey and Marr had claimed 40% each of the Smiths' recording and performance royalties and allowed ten percent each to Joyce and Rourke. Composition royalties were not an issue, as Rourke and Joyce had never been credited as composers for the band. Morrissey and Marr claimed that the other two members of the band had always agreed to that split of the royalties as they had consented to an account of the royalties sent to Joyce during the band's existence, but initially the [[High Court of Justice|High Court]] and then the [[Court of Appeal]] found in favour of Joyce and ordered that he be paid over £1&nbsp;million in back pay and receive 25 percent henceforth. As Smiths' royalties had been frozen for two years, Rourke settled for a smaller lump sum to pay off his debts and continued to receive ten percent. While the judge in the case described Morrissey as "devious, truculent and unreliable," he did not state that the singer had been dishonest.<ref>{{cite web| author=[[BBC News]] | date=11 December 1996 | title=Rock band drummer awarded £1m payout | format=http | work=BBC, ''cited at'' Cemetrygates.com | url=http://www.cemetrygates.com/vault/news/court.html | accessdate =22 April 2007}}</ref> Morrissey claimed that he was "...&nbsp;under the scorching spotlight in the dock, being drilled&nbsp;..." with questions such as " 'How dare you be successful?' 'How dare you move on?'" He stated that "The Smiths were a beautiful thing and Johnny [Marr] left it, and Mike [Joyce] has destroyed it."<ref name="importance being">Nine, Jennifer. "The Importance of Being Morrissey." ''Melody Maker''. 9 August 1997.</ref> Morrissey appealed against the verdict, but was not successful.<ref>{{cite web| year=1998| title=Joyce vs. Morrissey and Others | format=http | work=England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions | url=http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/1998/1711.html | accessdate =16 February 2007}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey returned on a new record label in 1997 with the single "[[Alma Matters]]" in promotion of his album ''[[Maladjusted]].'' Though the single was hailed by some as a return to form for Morrissey, the resulting album is considered both a commercial and critical disappointment. The album peaked at number eight in the UK album charts and its further two singles, "[[Roy's Keen]]" and "[[Satan Rejected My Soul]]" both peaked outside the UK Top 30.<ref name="guinness book solo" /> Morrissey would not release another studio album for seven years.
 
 
===Hiatus: 1998–03===
 
In 1998, it was said that Morrissey didn't have a record deal anymore.<ref>{{cite journal|
 
author=Simpson, Dave |title=Manshester's Answer To The H-BomB|publisher=Uncut |isseu=August 1998}}</ref> In 1999, he did a tour called "Oye Esteban" and was one of the headliners of the [[Coachella Festival]].<ref>{{cite journal |title=Interview |author=Bracewell, Michael |publisher=The Times Magazine |issue= 6 November 1999}}</ref> The tour extended and passed by [[Mexico]] and [[South America]], attracting a new latino following.
 
 
In 2002, Morrissey returned with a world tour, peaking with two sold out nights at the [[Royal Albert Hall]] in London where he revealed yet unreleased songs to his audience.<ref>{{cite journal |title=And Don't Forget The Songs... |publisher=City Life |issue=2-9 July 2003}}</ref> Outside the US and Europe, concerts also took place in Australia and Japan.<ref>{{cite web|author=David Tseng ([email protected]) |url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/news/news2002.html |title=Morrissey-solo News Archive – 2002 |publisher=Morrissey-solo.com |date=2 November 2002 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> It was during this time that Channel 4 filmed ''The Importance of Being Morrissey,'' a documentary which eventually aired in 2003.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/features/03/06/07/2026219.shtml |title="The Importance of Being Morrissey" (documentary aired on Channel 4,&nbsp;June&nbsp;8, 2003) – reports |publisher=Morrissey-solo |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> In June 2003, it was revealed [[Sanctuary Records]] had given Morrissey the one-time reggae label [[Attack Records (UK)|Attack Records]] to record new material and to sign new artists.<ref name="misfit">{{Cite news|url=http://arts.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0,,972439,00.html |title=Misfit Morrissey finds new niche by signing with reggae label |accessdate=30 November 2007 |work=The Guardian  |location=London  | first=Jeevan | last=Vasagar | date=7 June 2003}}</ref>
 
 
===Comeback: 2004–10===
 
Morrissey's seventh album ''[[You Are the Quarry]]'' was released in 2004. It peaked at number two on the UK album chart and number 11 on the Billboard album chart in the United States.<ref name="guinness book solo" /> Guitarist [[Alain Whyte]] described the work as a mix between ''[[Your Arsenal]]'' and ''[[Vauxhall and I]],'' and the album received strong reviews. The first single, "[[Irish Blood, English Heart]]," reached number three in its first week of sales in the [[UK singles chart]].<ref name="guinness book solo" /> This was the highest placing chart position for Morrissey in his entire career at that point. Three other hit singles followed: "[[First of the Gang to Die]]," "[[Let Me Kiss You]]," and "[[I Have Forgiven Jesus]]." With the release of "I Have Forgiven Jesus," Morrissey along with [[McFly (band)|McFly]] became the only artists to score four top-10 hits in the UK singles chart that year. The album has since sold over a million copies, making the album his most successful one, solo or with the Smiths. To coincide with the release of the album, Morrissey embarked on an accompanying tour spanning several continents from April to November.<ref>{{cite web|author=David Tseng ([email protected]) |url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/news/news2004.html |title=Morrissey-solo News Archive – 2004 |publisher=Morrissey-solo.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> In August 2004, Morrissey was slated to headline a week-long set of shows on [[Craig Ferguson]]'s ''[[The Late Late Show (CBS TV series)|The Late Late Show]].'' Morrissey did not perform every night of the weeklong series due to a throat illness. He did, however, perform the following week. The performance at the [[Manchester Arena]] on Morrissey's 45th birthday was recorded and released on the DVD ''[[Who Put the M in Manchester?]]'' in 2005.
 
{{listen|filename=Morrissey In The Future When All's Well.ogg|title=In The Future When All's Well |description="In the Future When All's Well" taken from Morrissey's 2006 album ''[[Ringleader of the Tormentors]].''}}
 
 
Morrissey's eighth studio album, ''[[Ringleader of the Tormentors]],'' was recorded in Rome and released on 3 April 2006. Upon release, it debuted at number one in the UK album charts and number 27 in the US.<ref name="chart_stats">{{cite web|url=http://www.chartstats.com/artistinfo.php?id=211|title=Morrissey|publisher=Chart Stats|accessdate=18 November 2008}}</ref><ref name="billboard_solo_albums">{{cite web|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/retrieve_chart_history.do?model.chartFormatGroupName=Albums&model.vnuArtistId=88719&model.vnuAlbumId=785355|title=Artist Chart History—Morrissey: Albums|work=Billboard |accessdate=18 November 2008}}</ref> The album yielded four hit singles: "[[You Have Killed Me]]," "[[The Youngest Was the Most Loved]]," "[[In the Future When All's Well]]," and "[[I Just Want to See the Boy Happy]]." Originally Morrissey was to record the album with producer Jeff Saltzman; however, he could not undertake the project. Producer Tony Visconti, of [[T.Rex (band)|T.Rex]] and [[David Bowie]] fame, took over the production role and Morrissey announced that the album was "the most beautiful—perhaps the most gentle, so far." ''[[Billboard magazine]]'' described the album as showcasing "a thicker, more rock-driven sound."<ref>{{cite web|author=Up for Discussion Jump to Forums |url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001806691 |title=Morrissey Rocks, Revels In Rome On New Album |work=Billboard  |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> Morrissey attributes this change in sound to new guitarist [[Jesse Tobias]]. The subsequent 2006 international tour included more than two dozen gigs in the UK, including concerts at the [[London Palladium]]. Morrissey was scheduled to appear at the 2005 Benicassim festival in Spain but pulled out at the last minute. In January 2007, the [[BBC]] confirmed that it was in talks with Morrissey for him to write a song for the 2007 [[Eurovision Song Contest]]. If an agreement could be made, Morrissey would be writing the song for someone else, rather than performing it himself, a BBC spokesperson claimed.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/6244153.stm |title=Morrissey in talks for Eurovision |publisher=BBC News  |date=9 January 2007 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> The following month, the BBC ruled this out, and stated Morrissey would not be part of Britain's Eurovision entry.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6388469.stm |title=No Morrissey entry for Eurovision |work=BBC News |date=23 February 2007 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.side-line.com/news_comments.php?id=21090_0_2_0_C |title=No eurovision for Morrissey |publisher=Side-line.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In early 2007, Morrissey left [[Sanctuary Records]] and embarked on a ''Greatest Hits'' tour. The tour ran from 1 February 2007 to 29 July 2008 and spanned 106 concerts over 8 different countries. Morrissey cancelled 11 of these dates, including a planned six consecutive shows at [[the Roundhouse]] in London, due to "throat problems." The tour consisted of three legs, the first two encompassing the US and Mexico were supported by [[Kristeen Young]] from February to October while the remainder featured [[Girl in a Coma]]. The final leg was a small scale European tour that saw Morrissey headlining the [[O2 Wireless Festival]] in Hyde Park, London on 4 July and culminated in Morrissey playing at the Heatwave Festival in Tel Aviv, Israel on 29 July.
 
 
After a show in Houston, Texas, on the first leg of the tour Morrissey rented out the Sunrise Sound Studio to record "[[That's How People Grow Up]]." The song was recorded with producer [[Jerry Finn]] rather than previous producer [[Tony Visconti]] for a future single and inclusion on an upcoming album. In an interview on [[BBC Radio 5 Live]] with Visconti, the producer stated that his new project would be Morrissey's next album, though that this would not be forthcoming for at least a year. However, in an interview with the BBC News website in October 2007, Morrissey said that the album was already written and ready for a possible September 2008 release and confirmed that his deal with [[Sanctuary Records]] had come to an end.<ref>{{cite news|last=Holt |first=Sarah |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7024048.stm |title=Morrissey plans new album in 2008 |publisher=BBC News  |date=2 October 2007 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> In December he signed a new deal with [[Decca Records]], which included a ''[[Greatest Hits (Morrissey)|Greatest Hits]]'' album and a newly-recorded album to follow in autumn 2008.<ref>{{Cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7124463.stm |work=BBC News  | title=Morrissey switches record labels | date=3 December 2007 | accessdate=13 May 2010}}</ref> Upon signing with Decca, Morrissey released "That's How People Grow Up" as the first single off of his new ''[[Greatest Hits (Morrissey album)|Greatest Hits]]'' album. Despite lukewarm reviews, especially in the ''[[NME]],'' the lack of airplay on British radio (except on [[XFM]]), and even the incredulity of fan sites, "That's How People Grow Up" reached the Top 15, reaching number 14 on the British charts.<ref name="chart_stats" /> Reviews for the Greatest Hits compilation were very mixed; reviewers noted that the album only includes songs which reached the Top 15 in the charts, putting the emphasis on new songs, making the CD more suitable for new listeners than for old fans.<ref>{{cite web |first=Mark |last=Beaumont |url=http://www.nme.com/reviews/morrissey/9460 |title=Reviews: Morrissey, Greatest Hits |work=NME  |date=7 February 2008 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref> The album charted at number 5 in the British album chart on its week of release.<ref name="chart_stats" /> A limited edition of the ''Greatest Hits'' album also featured an eight-track live CD which was recorded at the [[Hollywood Bowl]] in 2007. A second single from the ''Greatest Hits,'' "[[All You Need Is Me]]," was released in March. In May 2008, Morrissey parted ways with his manager of five years, Merck Mercuriadis, in favour of a new contract with IE Music, however by September Morrissey left the group and acquired the services of Irving Azoff.<ref>{{cite web |author=Show Biz Spy |url=http://www.showbizspy.com/news/05292008/morrissey-parts-with-manager |title=Morrissey Parts with Manager |work=showbizspy.com |date=29 May 2008 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |first=Julianna |last=Korenteng |url=http://www.billboard.biz/bbbiz/content_display/industry/e3i70662f7dd9d6f3c46e8f30ac3964ec43 |title=Morrissey Splits With Management |work=Billboard.biz |date=1 September 2008|accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |work=True-To-You |url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_081001_01 |title=Morrissey now managed by Irving Azoff; Southpaw Grammar: Album re-issue release date and other information |date=1 October 2008 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref>
 
[[File:Morrissey Live at SXSW Austin in March 2006.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Morrissey at [[SXSW]], 2006.]]
 
 
On 30 May 2008, it was announced that Morrissey's ninth studio album, ''[[Years of Refusal]]'' would have 12 tracks and be produced by [[Jerry Finn]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_080530_01 |title=New album information |publisher=True-to-you.net |date=30 May 2008 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> On 5 August 2008 it was reported that, although originally due in September, ''Years of Refusal'' had been postponed until February 2009, as a result of Finn's death and the lack of an American label to distribute the album.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/news.php?id=22221|title=Morrissey, Punk Producer Jerry Finn Passes Away at 39|work=All About Jazz|accessdate=24 September 2008}}</ref>
 
 
On 15 August 2008, Warner Music Entertainment announced the upcoming release of ''[[Morrissey: Live at the Hollywood Bowl]],'' a DVD documenting the live performance that took place at the historic [[Hollywood Bowl]] in Los Angeles, California, on 8 June 2007 on the first leg of Morrissey's 2007/2008 Greatest Hits tour.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.passionsjustlikemine.com/live/moz-g070608.htm |title=Live 8 June 2007 – Los Angeles Bowl (CA), Hollywood Bowl |work=Passionsjustlikemine.com |accessdate=12 June 2011}}</ref> Morrissey greeted news of the DVD's release by imploring fans not to buy it.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_080814_01 |title=Message from Morrissey |publisher=True To You |date=14 August 2008 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> Originally due to be released 6 October 2008, the DVD has subsequently been delayed until 1 March 2009 by Warner Music according to HMV. This DVD has never been released.
 
 
In November 2008, ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' magazine named Morrissey one of "The 100 Greatest Singers of All Time." The list was compiled from ballots cast by a panel of 179 "music experts," such as [[Bruce Springsteen]], [[Alicia Keys]] and [[Bono]], who were asked to name their 20 favourite vocalists. Morrissey was ranked 92.<ref name="greatestsingers"/>
 
 
In February 2009, following persistent rumours over preceding months of an imminent Smiths reunion, Morrissey was once again forced to deny that any such reunion would take place. In an interview with [[BBC Radio 2]], he remarked that "people always ask me about reunions, and I can't imagine why&nbsp;... the past seems like a distant place, and I'm pleased about that."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.idiomag.com/peek/64478/morrissey|title=Morrissey Scorns Smiths Rumours|accessdate=13 February 2009|date=12 February 2009|publisher=[[idiomag]]}}</ref> In a separate interview, with London radio station [[Xfm]], Morrissey also stated that "chances were slim" that he himself would continue performing past the age of 55.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.idiomag.com/peek/65202/morrissey|title=Morrissey to retire at 55|accessdate=18 February 2009|date=17 February 2009|publisher=[[idiomag]]}}</ref>
 
 
''[[Years of Refusal]]'' was released worldwide on 16 February 2009 by the Universal Music Group. Upon release, it reached third place in the [[UK Albums Chart]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chartstats.com/albuminfo.php?id=13876|title=Years Of Refusal|publisher=Chart Stats|accessdate=25 February 2009}}</ref> and 11 in the US [[Billboard 200]].<ref>{{Cite news|first=Keith|last=Caulfield|title='Slumdog' Barks While Taylor Swift Nets 10th Week At No. 1|url=http://www.billboard.biz/bbbiz/content_display/charts/chart_alert/e3i03e9df1ef7d2112bf801391a4a8ba398|work=Billboard |date=25 February 2009|accessdate=25 February 2009}}</ref> The record was widely acclaimed by critics,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.metacritic.com/music/artists/morrissey/yearsofrefusal?q=years%20of%20refusal |title=Morrissey: Years of Refusal (2009) |publisher=Metacritic |date=17 February 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> with comparisons made to ''[[Your Arsenal]]''<ref>{{cite web |first=Keith |last=Phillips |work=AVClub.com [http://www.avclub.com/articles/morrissey,23852/ |title=Morrissey: Years of Refusal |date=17 February 2009 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref> and ''[[Vauxhall and I]]''.<ref name="ewing">{{cite web |first=Tom |last=Ewing |url=http://pitchfork.com/reviews/albums/12640-years-of-refusal/ |work=Pitchfork |title=Years of Refusal |date=3 February 2009 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref> A review from [[Pitchfork Media]] noted that with ''Years of Refusal,'' Morrissey "has rediscovered himself, finding new potency in his familiar arsenal. Morrissey's rejuvenation is most obvious in the renewed strength of his vocals" and called it his "most venomous, score-settling album, and in a perverse way that makes it his most engaging."<ref name="ewing" /> "[[I'm Throwing My Arms Around Paris]]" and "[[Something Is Squeezing My Skull]]" were released as the record's singles. The song "Black Cloud" features the guitar playing of [[Jeff Beck]]. Throughout 2009 Morrissey toured to promote the album. As part of the extensive Tour of Refusal, Morrissey followed a lengthy US tour with concerts booked in Ireland, Scotland, England, Russia.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://tour.morrissey-solo.com/ |title=Morrissey-solo: Tour |publisher=Tour.morrissey-solo.com |date=9 March 2010 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> He had never before performed in Russia.
 
 
In April 2009, remastered editions of 1995's ''[[Southpaw Grammar]]'' and 1997's ''[[Maladjusted]]'' were released in the UK.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_090427_01 |title=Southpaw Grammar: Remastered version released today in the UK |publisher=True To You |date=27 April 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_090427_02 |title=Maladjusted: Remastered version released today in the UK |publisher=True To You |date=27 April 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> These both featured a rearranged track listing with the inclusion of B-sides and outtakes, resulting in albums quite different to the original. They also featured new artwork and liner notes written by Morrissey. The reissues were available in the US from June that year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_090605_01 |title=Maladjusted: Remastered version US release information |publisher=True To You |date=5 June 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
October 2009 saw the release of a 2004–2009 B-Sides collection, named ''[[Swords (album)|Swords]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_091026_01 |title=Swords: Album released today in the UK |publisher=True To You |date=26 October 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> The album peaked at 55 on the UK albums chart, and Morrissey later called the compilation "a meek disaster."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_091216_01 |title=Statement from Morrissey to True-to-you |publisher=True To You |date=16 December 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> On the second date of the UK tour to promote ''Swords,'' Morrissey collapsed with breathing difficulties upon finishing the opening song of his set, "This Charming Man," at the Oasis Centre, Swindon.<ref>{{cite news|author=James Orr |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2009/oct/24/morrissey-the-smiths-collapse-swindon |title='&#39;Morrissey in hospital after on stage collapse'&#39;, Guardian.com |work=The Guardian  |location=London |date= 24 October 2009|accessdate=13 August 2010 }}</ref> He was discharged from the hospital the following day.<ref>{{cite news|author=Alexandra Topping |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2009/oct/25/morrissey-discharged-hospital-swindon |title='&#39;Morrissey out of hospital after collapsing on stage in Swindon'&#39; Guardian.com |work=The Guardian  |location=London |date= 25 October 2009|accessdate=13 August 2010 }}</ref>
 
 
Following the completion of the ''Swords'' tour it was announced that Morrissey had fulfilled his contractual obligation to Universal Records and was without a record company.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_091104_01 |title=Record company information |publisher=True To You |date=4 November 2009 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> Shortly after this announcement, it was also revealed he had split with Front Line Management.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_100106_01 |title=Statement from Morrissey |publisher=True To You |date=6 January 2010 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In July 2010, it was announced that EMI will reissue the 1990 album ''[[Bona Drag]]'' on its [[Major Minor Records|Major Minor]] imprint, resurrected specifically for the release. The release features six additional previously unreleased tracks, and was released on 4 October, entering at number 67 in the UK charts.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/article.pl?sid=10/10/10/1849237|title=morrissey-solo.com}}</ref> The 1988 single "[[Everyday Is Like Sunday]]" was also reissued to coincide with the release on both CD and 7" vinyl formats.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.esounds.com/esounds/EN/SearchResults.aspx?oid=33171998-88a6-4edc-bfcf-9fa276abd21f&Sort=0&SortType=1&RPP=10&Page=1 |title=esounds |publisher=esounds |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
===2011 and future===
 
 
In February 2011, EMI announced a brand new compilation – ''[[Very Best of Morrissey]]'' – would be released in April that year. The press release stated both the tracklist and artwork were chosen by Morrissey himself, and the single "[[Glamorous Glue]]" would also be reissued the same week with two previously unreleased songs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/content/51-The-Very-Best-of-Morrissey-with-Bonus-DVD-Glamorous-Glue-single-with-previously-unreleased-songs-true-to-you.net-(Apr.-25)|title="The Very Best of Morrissey" with Bonus DVD; "Glamorous Glue" single with previously unreleased songs – true-to-you.net (25 Apr.)|publisher=Morrissey-Solo.com|date=22 February 2011 |accessdate=7 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In March 2011, it was announced Morrissey was now under the management of Ron Laffitte.<ref name="true-to-you1">{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_110304_01|title=Morrissey to headline at Hop Farm Music Festival; Damien Dempsey looks likely to be added; Morrissey now managed by Ron Laffitte|publisher=True-To-You.net|date=4 March 2011 |accessdate=7 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In June and July 2011 Morrissey played a UK tour,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/content/78-UK-tour-dates-confirmed-on-true-to-you.net?s=69c236316c9eaca88c171ca71961ac43|title=UK tour dates confirmed on true-to-you.net|publisher=Morrissey-solo.com|date=9 March 2011 |accessdate=17 March 2011}}</ref> mainly consisting of small venues in the North of Britain; played Glastonbury Festival; and headlined the [[Hop Farm Festival]].<ref name="true-to-you1"/> In July and August he toured touring venues in Europe and played two festival dates, [[Hultsfred Festival]] in Sweden and the [[Lokeren]] Festival in Belgium.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_events|title=European and European festival tour dates confirmed on true-to-you.net|publisher=True To You Net|date=26 May 2011 |accessdate=26 May 2011}}</ref> During his performance at [[Glastonbury Festival|Glastonbury]] Morrissey criticised the UK Prime Minister David Cameron for attempting to stop the ban on wild animals performing in circuses, calling him a "silly twit".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.spinnermusic.co.uk/2011/06/25/morrissey-glastonbury-u2-david-cameron |title=Morrissey Gets Mouthy at David Cameron and U2 at Glastonbury – Spinner UK |publisher=Spinnermusic.co.uk |date=25 June 2011 |accessdate=11 August 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey has completed a 660-page autobiography which he intends to offer to publishers.<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b010dqgd "Front Row" BBC Radio Four, London 20 April 2011] Retrieved 20 April 2011</ref> In July 2011, NME reported that it's scheduled to be released in December 2012.<ref>{{cite web|title=Morrissey to publish autobiography in December 2012|url=http://www.nme.com/news/morrissey/58024|work=NME Online|accessdate=10 November 2011}}</ref> Morrissey has previously stated he wishes for his autobiography to reach [[Penguin Classics|Penguin Classic]] status.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Smiths bidding war hinges on 'classic' status |last=Sherwin |first=Adam |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/smiths-bidding-war-hinges-on-classic-status-2272620.html |newspaper=The Independent |publisher=The Independent Print |date=22 April 2011 |accessdate=29 December 2011}}</ref> It has been reported that [[Penguin Books]] are keen for his autobiography to be published as a "contemporary classic",<ref>{{Cite news |title=Penguin Books: 'Morrissey's autobiography is a classic in the making' |url=http://www.nme.com/news/morrissey/56282 |work=NME  |date=22 April 2011 |accessdate=29 December 2011}}</ref> and [[Faber and Faber]] are also interested in publishing his autobiography.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Faber editor bids to woo Morrissey to 'the House of Eliot' |last=Flood |first=Alison |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/feb/02/faber-editor-morrissey |newspaper=The Guardian |date=2 February 2010 |accessdate=29 December 2011}}</ref>
 
 
On 14 June 2011, Janice Long premiered three new Morrissey songs in session on her BBC Radio 2 program, "Action Is My Middle Name", "The Kid's a Looker" and "People Are the Same Everywhere".<ref>{{cite web|author=Tuesday |url=http://thenjunderground.com/blog/2011/6/14/morrissey-debuts-3-new-songs-on-bbc-stream.html |title=Morrissey debuts 3 new songs on BBC (stream) – Home |publisher=The NJ Underground |date=14 June 2011 |accessdate=11 August 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey's 2012 tour started in Chile and visited Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, and Philippines. A string of US shows was announced for May before a European tour, in July with concerts in Italy and Belgium plus his only UK appearance of the year, at [[Manchester Arena]].
 
 
==Image and politics==
 
=== Music industry feuds ===
 
Morrissey has criticised singers like [[Madonna (entertainer)|Madonna]], [[Elton John]] and [[George Michael]], generally claiming their lyrics are pointless and they are more interested in being celebrities than in their music. During 'The importance of Being Morrissey,' he claimed, regarding his criticisms of Elton John, 'All I said was bring me the head of Elton John... which is one instance in which meat would not be murder, if it were served on a plate!' He has also had disagreements with [[The Cure]]'s [[Robert Smith (musician)|Robert Smith]], who like Morrissey is a vegetarian. Smith stated "If Morrissey says not to eat meat, then I'll eat meat; that's how much I hate Morrissey."<ref>{{cite web| year= 1997 | title=morrissey-solo.com | work=morrissey-solo.com | url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/people/robertsmith.htm | accessdate=30 November 2006}}</ref> [[Lol Tolhurst]], another founding member of the Cure, has claimed he likes Morrissey's music; however, he also said Smith is "quite justified in his ire", alleging their feud was instigated by Morrissey:
 
<blockquote>"We had never met Morrissey or the Smiths at that point and Morrissey made a very uncalled for remark concerning Robert in the English press. I never understood why as we or Robert had done nothing to upset him that I could think of, but after that it kind of snowballed&nbsp;... Especially as journalists love feuds!!"<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.levinhurst.com/cgi/Blah/Blah.pl?b=cc,m=1122314484 |title=Morrissey and The Smiths |publisher=Levinhurst |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref></blockquote>
 
 
Morrissey also once openly wished ''Morrissey & Marr: The Severed Alliance'' author [[Johnny Rogan]] "ends his days very soon in an M3 pile-up."
 
[[Neil Tennant]] of the [[Pet Shop Boys]] co-wrote two songs inspired by Morrissey's public stereotyping as miserable and unlovable ("[[Getting Away with It]]" and "Miserablism").<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.petshopboys.net/html/interviews/behaviuor014.shtml Interviews—Behaviour—Miserablism |title=Absolutely Pet Shop Boys |work=petshopboys.net |accessdate=30 August 2007}}</ref>
 
 
In 1994, Morrissey was criticised by [[Manic Street Preachers]]' bassist and lyricist [[Nicky Wire]], in regards to comments Morrissey had made about immigration and national identity in [[NME]].{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}} Other targets of his disapproval have been [[Band Aid (band)|Band Aid]], rap and rave music, and teenage pop stars. He once stated he disapproved of reggae – a criticism he later retracted, stating he was being facetious and he grew up partly on the classic singles released by the British reggae label [[Trojan Records|Trojan]] in the early to mid-1970s.<ref name="misfit"/>
 
 
Morrissey's relationship with his fanbase is intense and equally tumultuous. Morrissey's fans are considered among the most dedicated pop/rock fans. <ref>'Wanna Be In My Gang' - The Guardian, Culture. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2008/may/17/popandrock1 </ref> Morrissey concerts are often characterised by rows of fans with quiffs and sometimes flowers in an echo of his early 1980s self. Many of his fans form internet communities and have done since the late 90s. In the early 2000s, Morrissey fell out with fansite Morrissey-Solo, issuing a 'cease and desist' notification against it. The feud intensified in 2011 when Morrissey issued a lifetime concert ban against website owner David Tseng. <ref>Morrissey fansite owner refused concert entry and banned for life, Metro Newspaper, 2011, http://www.metro.co.uk/music/869438-morrissey-fansite-owner-refused-entry-to-gig-and-banned-for-life</ref> Another fansite, True-To-You enjoys a very close relationship with Morrissey and functions as his official website for statements etc. <ref>True to You statement, March 2012, http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_120323_01</ref>
 
 
In a recent interview published in Brazil, Morrissey criticised a Morrissey parody blog, called MorrisseysWorld, which a small number of Morrissey fans have come to believe is written by Morrissey himself. He labelled the blog 'dangerous' and said it has 'caused me problems.' <ref>Morrissey interview published in Brazil, 2012, http://www.divirta-se.uai.com.br/html/sessao_19/2012/02/27/ficha_musica/id_sessao=19&id_noticia=49957/ficha_musica.shtml</ref> Morrissey has denied being responsible for this site on four occasions now<ref>True to You - first denial Morrissey is author of MorrisseysWorld.blogspot. http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_110514_01</ref><ref>True to You - second denial. http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_110819_01</ref><ref>True to You - third denial http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_110914_01</ref><ref>fourth denial in interview, Brazil http://www.divirta-se.uai.com.br/html/sessao_19/2012/02/27/ficha_musica/id_sessao=19&id_noticia=49957/ficha_musica.shtml </ref>, with The Independent newspaper's pop critic Kitty Empire among those who have suggested he could be behind the site. <ref>Morrissey review, 14th August 2011 by Kitty Empire, http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2011/aug/14/morrissey-london-palladium-review</ref> Morrissey took the time during the interview to deride the 'anyone can be a critic' attitude. Apart from these feuds with websites, Morrissey's relationship with his fans is generally extremely positive and close. He often hands his microphone to fans during live concerts and they say a few words to Morrissey.
 
 
===Attitude towards political leaders===
 
Morrissey has always been politically outspoken, directing his criticism at figures ranging from [[Oliver Cromwell]], the [[British Royal Family]], former [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|British Prime Minister]]s [[Margaret Thatcher]] and [[Tony Blair]] and former [[President of the United States|U.S. President]] [[George W. Bush]]. He has criticised both the two main political parties of the United Kingdom, the [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]] and the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative Party]].
 
 
In a 1984 interview, Morrissey spoke of the then-Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher: "She is only one person. She can be destroyed. It is the only remedy for this country at the moment." Morrissey's first solo album, ''Viva Hate'', included a track entitled "Margaret on the Guillotine", a jab at Thatcher. British police responded by searching Morrissey's home and carrying out an official investigation, while [[Simon Reynolds]], who had interviewed Morrissey for ''[[Melody Maker]]'', was questioned about the tone in which Morrissey had made certain remarks about Thatcher.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20080122141434/http://www.oz.net/~moz/lyrics/bonadrag/heknowsi.htm archive |title=LASID – He Knows I'd Love To See Him |work=oz.net |accesseddate= 13 July 2007}}</ref>
 
 
At a Dublin concert in June 2004, Morrissey caused controversy by announcing the death of former US President, [[Ronald Reagan]] and stating that he would have preferred it if the then current President, George W. Bush, had died.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.manchesteronline.co.uk/news/s/119/119298_morrissey_comments_spark_bush_fire.html |title=Morrissey comments spark Bush fire |publisher=Manchesteronline.co.uk |date=9 June 2004 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> In October 2004, Morrissey released a statement urging American voters to vote for [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]] candidate [[John Kerry]] for President, calling this vote a "logical and sane move". Morrissey opined that "Bush has single-handedly turned the United States into the most neurotic and terror-obsessed country on the planet."<ref>{{cite web|author=Have you ever sung karaoke? Posted 8 hours ago |url=http://understandish.livejournal.com/71393.html |title=understandish: OMG!!!!! |publisher=Understandish.livejournal.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In February 2006, Morrissey said he had been interviewed by the [[Federal Bureau of Investigation]] (FBI) and by [[Special Branch|British intelligence]] after having spoken out against the American and British governments. Morrissey said that "They were trying to determine if I was a threat to the government, it didn't take them long to realise that I am not."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://contactmusic.com/new/xmlfeed.nsf/mndwebpages/morrissey%20quizzed%20by%20fbi_23_02_2006 |title=Interviewed by the FBI |publisher=Contactmusic.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> During a January 2008 concert Morrissey remarked "God Bless [[Barack Obama]]" and ranted against [[Hillary Clinton]] after a performance of "The World Is Full of Crashing Bores."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://music.guardian.co.uk/live/story/0,,2247492,00.html |title=Heaven knows he's flexible now |author=[[Kitty Empire]] |work=The Guardian  |location=London |date= 27 January 2008|accessdate=13 August 2010 }}</ref>
 
 
In December 2010, he publicly supported Johnny Marr, who had stated that he forbade British Prime Minister, [[David Cameron]], from liking the Smiths. Morrissey added "I would like to, if I may, offer support to Johnny Marr who has spoken out to the media this week against David Cameron. David Cameron hunts and shoots and kills stags – apparently for pleasure. It was not for such people that either ''Meat Is Murder'' or ''The Queen Is Dead'' were recorded; in fact, they were made as a reaction against such violence." In his statement, he also lambasted the [[British Royal Family]], noting their continued violence toward animals (in their pursuit of hunting and their use of [[bearskin]] to make the hats of the British guards) and, in his opinion, their utter irrelevance in British life. He referred to [[Prince William, Duke of Cambridge|Prince William]] and his then-fiancée [[Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge|Catherine Middleton]] as "so dull as people that it is actually impossible to discuss them."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2010/dec/06/morrissey-johnny-marr-david-cameron |title=Morrissey supports Johnny Marr in David Cameron row |work=theguardiann.com accessed [date=30 January 2011 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref>
 
 
===Accusations of racism===
 
 
Morrissey has been accused of racism or of out-dated attitudes to race. In 1985 he stated that "all reggae is vile", a dismissal of the genre that some found to be racially charged. He later said that this was a tongue-in-cheek answer to "wind up the right-on 1980s NME" and that he was actually a fan of much reggae music.<ref name="misfit"/><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://arts.guardian.co.uk/fridayreview/story/0,12102,1188235,00.html |title='Somebody has to be me' |accessdate=30 November 2007 |work=The Guardian  |location=London  | first=Dorian | last=Lynskey | date=9 April 2004}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey songs such as "[[Bengali in Platforms]]," "Asian Rut" and "[[The National Front Disco]]", whose lyrics relate to community relations in the UK, have been criticised by some as sympathetic towards racism.{{citation needed|date=October 2011}} In a 2002 documentary, ''The Importance of Being Morrissey'', he takes issue with those who have viewed his songs in this way, saying: "Not everybody is absolutely stupid."
 
 
Morrissey's performance at the first [[Madness (band)|Madness]] ''[[Madstock!]]'' reunion concert at Finsbury Park, London, in 1992, saw him appear on stage carrying a [[Union Flag]], often associated{{cn|date=April 2012}} with nationalism and the British far-right. As a backdrop for this performance, he chose a photograph of two female [[skinhead]]s. The British music magazine ''[[NME]]'' responded to the performance with a lengthy examination of Morrissey's attitudes to race, claiming that the singer had "left himself in a position where accusations that he's toying with far-right/fascist imagery, and even of racism itself, can no longer just be laughed off with a knowing quip."<ref>''NME,'' 22 August 1992</ref>
 
 
In 1994, Morrissey rejected claims of racism, saying "If the [[British National Front|National Front]] were to hate anyone, it would be me." He qualified that by saying that far-right rage "is simply their anger at being ignored in what is supposed to be a democratic society."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.compsoc.man.ac.uk/~moz/quotes/glove.htm |title=IMAET interviews – Select, 1994 |year=1994 |publisher=Select |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060427063108/http://www.compsoc.man.ac.uk/~moz/quotes/glove.htm |archivedate=27 April 2006}}</ref> In 1999, he lamented the rise of Austrian far-right politician [[Jörg Haider]], saying: "This is sad. Sometimes I don't believe we live in an intelligent world."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/articles/01/02/04/0924230.shtml |title=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/articles/01/02/04/0924230.shtml |publisher=Morrissey-solo.com |date=4 February 2001 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> In 2004, he was a founding signatory of the [[Unite Against Fascism]] pressure group.<ref>{{cite web |url=
 
http://www.nme.com/news/morrissey/17052 |title=Morrissey helps fight fascism!  |work=NME  |date=28 May 2004 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref>
 
 
In 2007, Morrissey said in an interview with the ''NME'' that British identity had disappeared because of immigration{{cn|date=April 2012}}. He later claimed to have been misrepresented, and his manager described the ''NME'' article as "character assassination".<ref name="autogenerated1">{{Cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7118412.stm |work=BBC News  | title=Morrissey to sue NME over story | date=29 November 2007 | accessdate=13 May 2010}}</ref> In 2008, he made a donation of £75,000 to the organisers of the [[Love Music Hate Racism]] concert in London, after the withdrawal of the ''NME'''s sponsorship left the event facing a financial shortfall.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7367945.stm |title=Morrissey saves anti-racism gig, BBC News, 25&nbsp;April 2008 |publisher=BBC News  |date=25 April 2008 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/hi/music/newsid_7370000/7370529.stm |work=BBC News  | title=90,000 fans Love Music Hate Racism | date=28 April 2008 | accessdate=13 May 2010 | first=Kev | last=Geoghegan}}</ref> A legal suit by Morrissey against the ''NME'' began in October 2011.<ref>{{cite news|title=Morrissey libel claim 'not genuine'|url=http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2011/1017/breaking49.html|accessdate=17 October 2011|newspaper=Irish Times|date=17 October 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In 2008, [[Word Magazine]] was forced to apologise in court for an article by [[David Quantick]] that accused Morrissey of being a racist and a hypocrite.<ref>{{Cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7328135.stm |work=BBC News  | title=Magazine says sorry to Morrissey | date=3 April 2008 | accessdate=13 May 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In 2010, during an interview with [[Simon Armitage]] for ''The Guardian'', Morrissey alighted on the topic of [[animal welfare|animal cruelty]] in China, saying "you can't help but feel the Chinese are a sub-species."<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2010/sep/03/morrissey-simon-armitage-interview|title=Morrissey interview: Big mouth strikes again | last = Armitage | first = Simon | newspaper=[[The Guardian]] | location = London | date=3 September 2010 | accessdate=3 September 2010}}</ref> This led to [[Love Music Hate Racism]], to whom Morrissey had previously donated money, saying it would be unable to accept support from him again without a retraction. "When you start using language like 'subspecies'," said a spokesperson, "you are entering into dark and murky water."<ref name="guardian.co.uk">{{cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2010/sep/03/morrissey-china-subspecies-racism |location=London |work=The Guardian  | title=Morrissey reignites racism row by calling Chinese a 'subspecies' | first=Alexandra | last=Topping | date=3 September 2010}}</ref>
 
 
According to the commentator Liz Hoggard: "Morrissey didn't help his case with an uneasy flirtation with gangster imagery: he took up boxing and was accompanied everywhere by a skinhead, named Jake&nbsp;... the man who abhorred violence became strangely fascinated by it."<ref name="autogenerated3">{{cite web |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/morrissey-the-alan-bennett-of-pop-480979.html |title=Morrissey: The Alan Bennett of pop |work=The Independent  |first=Liz |last=Hoggard |date=4 June 2006 |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref> ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' says that that Morrissey's 1990s albums, including ''Your Arsenal'' (1992), ''Vauxhall and I'' (1994), ''Southpaw Grammar'' (1995) and ''Maladjusted'' (1997) "testified to a growing homoerotic obsession with criminals, skinheads, and boxers, a change paralleled by a shift in the singer's image from wilting wallflower to would-be thug sporting sideburns and gold bracelets."<ref>{{cite web |first=Simon C.W. |last=Reynolds |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/549957/the-Smiths#ref=ref666407&tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=the%20Smiths%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20 |title=Encyclopedia the Smiths |work=Encyclopædia Britannica |accessdate=8 March 2012}}</ref>
 
 
Despite accusations of racism in the United Kingdom, Morrissey maintains a large Latino fan base in the United States and in Los Angeles particularly.<ref name="guardian.co.uk">{{cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2005/mar/25/popandrock |location=London |work=The Guardian  | title=Mad about Morrissey. Why has the ex-Smith developed a cult following among LA Latinos? | first=Ian | last=Aitch | date=25 March 2005}}</ref>
 
 
===Animal rights activism===
 
Morrissey has been vegetarian since he was 11 years old. He has explained his vegetarianism by saying "If you love animals, obviously it doesn't make sense to hurt them."<ref>{{cite web|last=Tennis |first=Cary |url=http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2002/10/21/peta/?sid=1116215 |title="Cut class, not frogs" – |publisher=Salon.com |date=21 October 2002 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> Morrissey is an advocate for animal rights and a supporter of [[People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals]] (PETA). In recognition of his support, PETA honoured him with the [[Linda McCartney]] Memorial Award at their 25th Anniversary Gala on 10 September 2005.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.peta25.com/gala-morrissey.asp?c=00m |title=> PETA 25th Anniversary Gala > Send Morrissey a Personal ?Congrats!? |publisher=PETA25.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In January 2006, Morrissey attracted criticism when he stated that he accepts the motives behind the militant tactics of the [[Animal Rights Militia]], saying "I understand why fur-farmers and so-called laboratory scientists are repaid with violence—it is because they deal in violence themselves and it's the only language they understand."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/questions_with_answers_from_morrissey |title=View questions and answers |publisher=True To You |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey has criticised people who are involved in the promotion of eating meat, specifically [[Jamie Oliver]]{{cn|date=April 2012}} and [[Clarissa Dickson Wright]]{{cn|date=April 2012}} – the latter already targeted by some animal rights activists for her stance on fox hunting. In response, Dickson-Wright stated "Morrissey is encouraging people to commit acts of violence and I am constantly aware that something might very well happen to me."{{cn|date=April 2012}} The Conservative MP [[David Davis (British politician)|David Davis]] criticised these comments, saying that "any incitement to violence is obviously wrong in a civilised society and should be investigated by the police."<ref>{{Cite news| url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article788698.ece |work=The Times  |location=London  | title=Morrissey supports animal rights violence | first=Jason | last=Allardyce | date=15 January 2006 | accessdate=13 May 2010}}</ref> On 27 March 2006, Morrissey released a statement that he would not include any concert dates in Canada on his world tour that year—and that he supported a boycott of all Canadian goods—in protest against the country's annual seal hunt, which he described as a "barbaric and cruel slaughter".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://true-to-you.net/morrissey_news_060327_02 |title=Statement from Morrissey |publisher=True To You |date=27 March 2006 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In 2009 he abandoned a stage at the [[Coachella Festival]] in California because of the smell of cooking meat.<ref name="guardian.co.uk"/> He later returned to finish his set.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nme.com/news/coachella/44120 |title=Morrissey condemns meat eaters at Coachella Festival &#124; News |work=NME  |location=UK  |date=18 April 2009 |accessdate=11 August 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In September 2010 he ignited a public controversy by describing Chinese people as a "subspecies" for their treatment of animals. In an interview with British poet, playwright and novelist [[Simon Armitage]] he said: "Did you see the thing on the news about their treatment of animals and animal welfare? Absolutely horrific. You can't help but feel that the Chinese are a subspecies."  He later made a statement saying "if anyone has seen the horrific and unwatchable footage of the Chinese cat and dog trade – animals skinned alive – then they could not possibly argue in favour of China as a caring nation. There are no animal protection laws in China and this results in the worst animal abuse and cruelty on the planet. It is indefensible."<ref>{{Cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2010/sep/03/morrissey-china-subspecies-racism | work=The Guardian Weekend | location=London | title=Morrissey reignites racism row by calling Chinese a 'subspecies' | first=Alexandra | last=Topping | date=3 September 2010 | accessdate=4 September 2010}}</ref>
 
 
At a concert in Warsaw, Poland on Sunday, 24 July 2011, Morrissey caused more controversy when stating "''We all live in a murderous world, as the events in Norway have shown, with 97 [sic] dead. Though that is nothing compared to what happens in [[McDonald's]] and [[Kentucky Fried Chicken|Kentucky Fried Shit]] every day.''"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.mirror.co.uk/celebs/news/2011/07/28/morrissey-says-norway-massacre-is-nothing-compared-to-the-actions-of-fast-food-chains-115875-23301837/ |title=Morrissey says Norway massacre is nothing compared to the actions of fast food chains |work=Daily Mirror  |date=28 July 2011 |accessdate=Retrieved 28 July 2011}}</ref><ref name="Morrissey compares Norway to Fast Food Industry">{{cite web | url=http://www.upvenue.com/article/1435-morissey-norway-nothing-compared-to-fast-food-industry.html | title=Morrissey: Norway 'Nothing' Compared to Fast Food Industry  | date=28 July 2011 | accessdate=28 July 2011 | work=UpVenue}}</ref> in reference to the [[2011 Norway attacks|recent attacks]] of [[Anders Behring Breivik|Anders Breivik]] in Norway on 22 July, which resulted in the killing of 69 people who were attending a Youth Labour Party camp on  Utøya Island, and eight people working in and around a government building which was bombed. His statement has been seen by many as crude and insensitive.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nme.com/news/morrissey/58322 |work=NME  |date=28 July 2011 |title=NME.COM users react angrily to Morrissey's 'sickening' comments on Norway tragedy'' |accessdate=28 July 2011}}</ref>
 
 
===Sexuality===
 
Morrissey's sexuality has been a matter of conjecture, and this has been fuelled by many conflicting statements from the singer, none of which has ever explicitly stated his sexual orientation. ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' states that he created a "compellingly conflicted persona (loudly proclaimed celibacy offset by coy hints of closeted homosexuality)" which has "made him a peculiar heartthrob."<ref>{{cite web|author=Encyclop&aelig;dia Britannica |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/549957/the-Smiths#ref=ref666407&tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=the%20Smiths%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia |title=the Smiths—Britannica Online Encyclopaedia |publisher=Britannica.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> "Morrissey has always taken great pains to maintain the 'undecidable' nature of his sexuality." In 1983 he claimed to be "a kind of prophet for the fourth sex," on the grounds that he was "bored with men and&nbsp;... bored with women." In 1984, he stated that he refused "to recognise the terms hetero-, bi-, and homo-sexual" because "everybody has exactly the same sexual needs."<ref name="autogenerated2">{{cite journal |title=A suitable case for treatment |work=NME  |issue=22/29th December 1984}}</ref> A 1984 Smiths article in ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' stated that Morrissey "admits he's gay," but Morrissey replied that it was news to him and the article used the term "fourth-gender" in its title.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Henke, James
 
|title=Oscar! Oscar! |work=Rolling Stone |issue=7 June 1984}}</ref>
 
 
The speculation was further fuelled by the frequent references to gay subculture and slang in his lyrics. In 2006, Liz Hoggard from ''The Independent'' noted, "Only 15 years after homosexuality had been decriminalised, his lyrics flirted with every kind of gay subculture"; for example, she claims that "This Charming Man" "is about age-gap, gay sex."<ref name="autogenerated3" /> Reviewer Stephen Thomas Erlewine claims lyrics to the Smiths single "Hand in Glove" contain very thinly "veiled references to homosexuality."<ref>{{cite web|last=Thomas |first=Stephen |url={{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p5466/biography|pure_url=yes}} |title=((( The Smiths > Biography ))) |publisher=allmusic |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
Throughout much of his career, he maintained in interviews that he was [[asexuality|asexual]] and celibate. [[Johnny Marr]] stated in a 1984 interview that "Morrissey doesn't participate in sex at the moment and hasn't done so for a while, he's had a lot of girlfriends in the past and quite a few men friends."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cemetrygates.com/vault/smiths/record.html |title=Record Mirror: 9&nbsp;June&nbsp;1984 |publisher=Cemetrygates.com |date=9 June 1984 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> In 1986, Morrissey claimed that he was "dramatically, supernaturally, non-sexual." In a 1994 interview, he claimed that "sex is actually never in my life," and as such, he argued that "I have no sexuality." In 1995, he claimed "I'd like to have a sex life, if possible."<ref name="autogenerated2" /> In a 1997 interview, he revealed he had been in a relationship with someone for two years but that it had ended and the person in question had just stopped loving him. He did not reveal the sex of his partner or whether it was a sexual relationship. However, he did admit to caring deeply and he stated he had hoped he or she had shared similar feelings.<ref>[http://www.oz.net/~moz/quotes/guard97.htm Interview—Suzie Mackenzie, The Guardian, 2/8/97]{{Dead link|date=August 2010}}</ref> In a 2006 ''NME'' interview, he stated he was no longer celibate, but he did not give any additional details. A 2006 article in UK paper ''The Independent'' stated the singer "...&nbsp;has even hinted at a late-blooming sex life."<ref name="autogenerated3" /> John Murphy of [[musicOMH]] has even speculated that the lyrics "Nothing entered me, 'til you came with the key" to Morrissey's 2006 song "[[You Have Killed Me]]" give reference to a sexual encounter he had.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.musicomh.com/singles/morrissey-4_0306.htm |title=You Have Killed Me review |publisher=Musicomh.com |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
Morrissey frequently tells interviewers who ask him about his sexuality the question is irrelevant to his music, or he gives an evasive or ambiguous response. While the debate over Morrissey's sexuality has become widespread on fan websites, including attempts to analyse the meaning of his ambiguous song lyrics, their attempts are often stymied because, as ''The Times'' critic Tom Gatti puts it, "Morrissey's music offers infinite capacity for interpretation" because "they are too flexible, too rich, too textured."<ref name="gatti" />
 
 
==Legacy and influence==
 
Morrissey is routinely referred to as an influential artist, both in his solo career and with the Smiths. The [[BBC]] has referred to him as "one of the most influential figures in the history of British pop,"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8062610.stm |title=The 'Pope of Mope' turns 50 |work=BBC News |date=22 May 2009 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref> and the ''[[NME]]'' named the Smiths the "most influential artist ever" in a 2002 poll, even topping [[the Beatles]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/articles/02/04/15/2040257.shtml |work=Morrissey-Solo |title=The Smiths: most influential artist ever—NME |date=15 April 2002 |accessdate=13 March 2012}}</ref> ''[[Rolling Stone]],'' naming him one of the greatest singers of all time in a recent poll, noted that his "rejection of convention" in his vocal style and lyrics is the reason "why he redefined the sound of British rock for the past quarter-century."<ref name="greatestsingers" /> Morrissey's enduring influence has been ascribed to his wit, the "infinite capacity for interpretation" in his lyrics,<ref name="gatti"/> and his appeal to the "constant navel gazing, reflection, solipsism" of generations of "disenfranchised youth," offering unusually intimate "companionship" to broad demographics.<ref name="anderman" />
 
 
Journalist [[Mark Simpson (journalist)|Mark Simpson]] calls Morrissey "one of the greatest pop lyricists – and probably ''the'' greatest-ever lyricist of desire – that has ever moaned" and observes that "he is fully present in his songs as few other artists are, in a way that fans of most other performers&nbsp;... wouldn't tolerate for a moment.<ref>Simpson, Mark. ''Saint Morrissey.'' Touchstone. 2003. p. 5.</ref> Simpson also argues that "After Morrissey there could be no more pop stars. His was an impossible act to follow&nbsp;... [his] unrivalled knowledge of the pop canon, his unequaled imagination of what it might mean to be a pop star, and his breathtakingly perverse ambition to turn it into great art, could only exhaust the form forever."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://motorcycleaupairboy.com/interviews/1999/murdered.htm |title=The man who murdered pop |publisher=Motorcycleaupairboy.com |date=5 November 1999 |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref>
 
In 2006, he was voted the second greatest living British [[cultural icon|icon]] in a poll held by the BBC's ''[[Culture Show]].''<ref>{{cite web|author=culture show |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/livingicons/vote/ |title=BBC—Culture Show—Living Icons |publisher=BBC News  |accessdate=13 August 2010}}</ref> The ''[[Allmusic|All Music]] Guide to Rock'' asserts that Morrissey's "lyrical preoccupations," particularly themes dealing with English identity, proved extremely influential on subsequent artists.<ref>Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Bgn9SGmA4dkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=all+music+guide+to+rock All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul],'' via Google Books, pg. 1346.</ref> Journalist Phillip Collins also described him as a major influence on modern music and "the best British lyricist in living memory."<ref>{{Cite news|last=Collins |first= Phillip |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/guest_contributors/article6894116.ece |title=Pop music can't do politics any more |work=The Times  |location=UK |date=29 October 2009 |accessdate=29 October 2009 }}</ref>
 
 
Cultural historian Julian Stringer notes that the Smiths and Morrissey were a product of and a reaction against [[Thatcherism]], and that their rise to fame "can be seen as the only sustained response that white, English pop/rock music was able to make against the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative Government's]] appropriation of white, English national identity; and that being the case, it is not really surprising that the response is utterly riddled with contradiction."<ref>Stringer, Julian. "[http://www.jstor.org/pss/853224 The Smiths: Repressed (But Remarkably Dressed)]." ''Popular Music,'' Vol. 11, No. 1 (via JSOTR. January 1992. p.&nbsp;15–26 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 21. Also cited at "[http://www.shotgun-review.com/archives/sf_moma/new_work_phil_collins.html Phil Collins]," ''Shotgun Review,'' Marc LeBlanc.</ref> Other scholars have responded favourably to Morrissey's work, including academic [[symposium|symposia]] at various universities including [[University of Limerick]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.morrissey-solo.com/article.pl?sid=09/03/04/1818214 |work=Morrissey-solo |title=Morrissey symposium in Limerick, Ireland |date=4 March 2009 |accessdate=13 March 2012}}</ref> and [[Manchester Metropolitan University]].<ref>{{cite web |last=Taylor |first=Paul |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/153/153978_morrissey_under_the_microscope.html  |title=Morrissey under the microscope |work=Manchester Evening News |date=8 April 2005 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref> Gavin Hopps, a research fellow and literary scholar at the [[University of St. Andrews]], wrote a full-length academic study of Morrissey's work, calling him comparable to [[Oscar Wilde]], [[John Betjeman]], and [[Philip Larkin]], and noting similarities between Morrissey and [[Samuel Beckett]].<ref>Wade, Mike. "[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article6338425.ece Morrissey: 50 today and a first-rank Romantic hero]." ''The Times.'' 21 May 2009. Retrieved on 23 August 2009.</ref> The ''British Food Journal'' featured an article in 2008 that applied Morrissey's lyrics to building positive business relationships.<ref>"[http://entertainment.uk.msn.com/news/article.aspx?cp-documentid=8197859 Heaven knows I'm teaching now]." MSN UK Entertainment. 29 April 2008. Retrieved on 23 August 2009.</ref> A major book of academic essays edited by Eoin Devereux, Aileen Dillane and Martin Power, ''Morrissey: Fandom, Representations and Identities'', which focuses on Morrissey's solo career, was published in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/books/view-Book,id=4753/ |title=Intellect Ltd |publisher=Intellectbooks.co.uk |accessdate=11 August 2011}}</ref>
 
 
A ''Los Angeles Times'' critic wrote that Morrissey "patented the template for modern [[indie rock]]" and that many bands playing at the [[Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival]] "would not be there – or at least, would not sound the same – were it not for him."<ref name="coachella">Timberg, Scott. "Coachella: Morrissey and the Smiths' influence is apparent." ''LA Times.'' 13 April 2009</ref> Similarly, the critic [[Steven Wells]] called Morrissey "the man who more or less invented indie" and an artist "who more than anybody else personifies" indie culture.<ref>{{cite web |last=Wells |first=Steven |url=http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/arts-and-culture/big_mouth_strikes_again-38463039.html |title=Big Mouth Strikes Again |work=Philadelphia Weekly |date=12 December 2007 |accessdate=23 August 2009}}</ref> [[Stephen Thomas Erlewine]] of Allmusic writes that the Smiths and Morrissey "inspired every band of note" in the [[Britpop]] era, including [[Suede (band)|Suede]], [[Blur (band)|Blur]], [[Oasis (band)|Oasis]], and [[Pulp (band)|Pulp]].<ref>{{cite web |last=Erlewine |first=Stephen Thomas |url=http://www.allmusic.com/album/r684089 |title=You Are the Quarry review |work=Allmusic |accessdate|23 August 2009}}</ref> Other major artists including [[Jeff Buckley]]<ref>"[http://www.nme.com/news/jeff-buckley/28559 Jeff Buckley revealed as massive Smiths fan]." ''[[NME]].'' 25 May 2007. Retrieved on 23 August 2009.</ref> and [[Radiohead]]<ref name="greatestsingers" /> have also been influenced by Morrissey. [[Colin Meloy]] of [[the Decemberists]], who recorded a 2005 EP of Morrissey covers titled ''[[Colin Meloy Sings Morrissey]],'' acknowledged Morrissey's influence on his songwriting: "You could either bask in that glow of fatalistic [[narcissism]], or you could think it was funny. I always thought that was an interesting dynamic in his songwriting, and I can only aspire to have that kind of dynamic in my songs."<ref>Robinson, Tasha. "[http://www.avclub.com/articles/the-decemberists-colin-meloy,25944/ The Decemberists' Colin Meloy]." [[The A.V. Club]]. 31 March 2009. Retrieved on 23 August 2009.</ref> [[Brandon Flowers]] of the American Rock band [[The Killers]] has revealed his admiration for Morrissey on several different occasions and admits that his interest for writing songs about murder such as "Jenny Was A Friend of Mine" and "Midnight Show" traces back to Morrissey singing about loving "the romance of crime" in the song [[Sister I'm A Poet]]. Flowers quoted "I studied that line a lot. And it's kind of embedded in me."<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2006/sep/24/popandrock.killers "Songs of praise"]. McLean, Craig. ''The Guardian''. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 12 June 2011.</ref>
 
 
==Solo discography==
 
{{Main|Morrissey discography}}
 
{{See also|The Smiths discography}}
 
<!--NOTE: THIS IS A LIST OF STUDIO ALBUMS ONLY—DO NOT ADD COMPILATIONS, e.g. SWORDS, BONA DRAG-->
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! Release date
 
! Title
 
|-
 
| 1988
 
| ''[[Viva Hate]]''
 
|-
 
| 1991
 
| ''[[Kill Uncle]]''
 
|-
 
| 1992
 
| ''[[Your Arsenal]]''
 
|-
 
| 1994
 
| ''[[Vauxhall and I]]''
 
|-
 
| 1995
 
| ''[[Southpaw Grammar]]''
 
|-
 
| 1997
 
| ''[[Maladjusted]]''
 
|-
 
| 2004
 
| ''[[You Are the Quarry]]''
 
|-
 
| 2006
 
| ''[[Ringleader of the Tormentors]]''
 
|-
 
| 2009
 
| ''[[Years of Refusal]]''
 
|}
 
 
==See also==
 
* [[Morrissey personnel]]
 
 
==Notes and references==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
 
==Morrissey bibliography==
 
*Morrissey, Steven Patrick, ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20091027091728/http://geocities.com/costelt/smithsmoz/Jamesdean/dean.htm James Dean is Not Dead]'', Babylon Books, 1983.
 
*Morrissey, Steven Patrick, ''Exit Smiling'', Babylon Books, 1998 (reprint).
 
*Morrissey, Steven Patrick, ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20091027091743/http://geocities.com/costelt/smithsmoz/NYDolls/nydolls.htm The New York Dolls]'', Babylon Books, 1981.
 
*Turner, Jeff; Bushell, Gary; Morrissey, Steven Patrick (introduction), ''Cockney Reject'', John Black Publishing, 2005.
 
*[[Tony Visconti|Visconti, Tony]]; Morrissey, Steven Patrick (introduction), ''The Autobiography'', Harper Collins Entertainment, 2007.
 
*Willians, John; Thomas, Caron; Morrissey, Steven Patrick (introduction), ''[[Marc Bolan]]: Wilderness of the Mind'', Xanadu, 1992.
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*Bret, David, ''Morrissey: Scandal and Passion'', Anova, 2007.
 
*Brown, Len, ''Meetings with Morrissey'', Omnibus, 2008.
 
*Campbell, Sean and Coulter, Colin, eds., ''Why Pamper Life's Complexities? Essays on The Smiths'', Manchester University Press, 2010.
 
*Devereux, Eoin; Dillane, Aileen; and Power, Martin J., eds., ''Morrissey: Fandom, Representations and Identities'', Intellect Books, 2011.
 
*[[Simon Goddard|Goddard, Simon]], ''Mozipedia: The Encyclopedia of Morrissey and The Smiths'', Ebury Press, 2009.
 
*Goddard, Simon, ''The Smiths: [[Songs That Saved Your Life]]'', Reynolds & Hearn, 2006.
 
*Greco, Nicholas P., "Only If You Are Really Interested: Celebrity, Gender, Desire, and the World of MORRISSEY", McFarland and Co., 2011.
 
*Hingley, Martin; Leek, Sheena; Lindgreen, Adam, [http://impgroup.org/uploads/papers/5726.pdf "Business relationships the Morrissey way"], ''British Food Journal'', Vol. 110, No. 1, pp.&nbsp;128–143, 2008.
 
*Hopps, Gavin, ''Morrissey: The Pageant of His Bleeding Heart'', Continuum, 2009.
 
*[[Johnny Rogan|Rogan, Johnny]], ''Morrissey'', self-published, 2007.
 
*Rogan, Johnny, ''Morrissey & Marr: The Severed Alliance'', Omnibus, 1993.
 
*[[Mark Simpson (journalist)|Simpson, Mark]], ''Saint Morrissey'', SAF UK 2003; Touchstone US, 2006.
 
*[[Linder Sterling|Sterling, Linder]], "[http://forums.morrissey-solo.com/showthread.php?t=64515 We Are Your Thoughts]", ''Linda Works: 1976–2006'', JRP Editions, 2006.
 
*Stringer, Julian, [http://www.jstor.org/pss/853224 "The Smiths: repressed (but remarkably dressed)"], JSTOR, ''Popular Music'', Vol. 11, No. 1, pp.&nbsp;15–26, January 1992.
 
*Sørensen, Jesper, ''Alle dage er som søndag'', Rosenkilde, 2009.
 
*Woods, Paul A., ed., ''Morrissey in Conversation: The Essential Interviews'', Plexus, 2007.
 
*Woronzoff, Elizabeth, [http://dspace.nitle.org/handle/10090/7398 "'Because the Music That They Constantly Play, It Says Nothing to Me About My Life:' An Analysis of Youth's Appropriation of Morrissey's Sexuality, Gender, and Identity"], monograph, Simmons College of Arts and Sciences Graduate Studies, February 2009.
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons category|Morrissey}}
 
{{Wikiquote|Morrissey}}
 
* [http://www.itsmorrisseysworld.com Official website]
 
* [http://truetoyou.net/ True-To-You]
 
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00p068y Morrissey on BBC Radio Desert Island Discs]
 
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n91-116097}}
 
 
{{Morrissey}}
 
{{The Smiths}}
 
{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}}
 
{{Use British English|date=October 2011}}
 
 
{{Persondata
 
|NAME= Morrissey
 
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Morrissey, Steven Patrick
 
|SHORT DESCRIPTION= English singer
 
|DATE OF BIRTH= 22 May 1959
 
|PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Davyhulme]], Lancashire, England
 
}}
 
[[Category:1959 births]]
 
[[Category:Living people]]
 
[[Category:Alternative rock musicians]]
 
[[Category:Animal rights advocates]]
 
[[Category:Decca Records artists]]
 
[[Category:English activists]]
 
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[[Category:English expatriates in the United States]]
 
[[Category:English male singers]]
 
[[Category:English rock singers]]
 
[[Category:English people of Irish descent]]
 
[[Category:English singer-songwriters]]
 
[[Category:English vegetarians]]
 
[[Category:Lost Highway Records artists]]
 
[[Category:Mercury Records artists]]
 
[[Category:Musicians from Manchester]]
 
[[Category:People from Davyhulme]]
 
[[Category:Rough Trade Records artists]]
 
[[Category:RCA Records artists]]
 
[[Category:Sire Records artists]]
 
[[Category:The Smiths members]]
 
[[Category:GQ Award winners]]
 
 
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Morrissey, 2009

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